A Master Showman and Musician
Born in April 1891, between Edwards and Bolton in southern Mississippi, Charley Patton was the scrawny
child of sharecropper parents.In 1900, his family moved 100 miles north to the Delta and the Will Dockery Plantation. There Patton fell under
the spell of guitarist Henry Sloan and would follow him to gigs. By 1910, he had become proficient as a performer and songwriter,
having already composed "Down The Dirt Road Blues," a slow drag called "Banty Rooster Blues," and his theme song "Pony Blues."
If the Delta country blues has a convenient source point, it would probably be Charley Patton, its
first great star. His hoarse, impassioned singing style, fluid guitar playing, and unrelenting beat made him the original
king of the Delta blues. Much more than your average itinerant musician, Patton was an acknowledged celebrity and a seminal
influence on musicians throughout the Delta. Rather than bumming his way from town to town, Patton would be called up to play
at plantation dances, juke joints, and the like. He'd pack them in like sardines everywhere he went, and the emotional sway
he held over his audiences caused him to be tossed off of more than one plantation by the ownership, simply because workers
would leave crops unattended to listen to him play any time he picked up a guitar. He epitomized the image of a '20s "sport"
blues singer: rakish, raffish, easy to provoke, capable of downing massive quantities of food and liquor, a woman on each
arm, with a flashy, expensive-looking guitar fitted with a strap and kept in a traveling case by his side, only to be opened
up when there was money or good times involved. His records -- especially his first and biggest hit, "Pony Blues" -- could
be heard on phonographs throughout the South. Although he was certainly not the first Delta bluesman to record, he quickly
became one of the genre's most popular. By late-'20s Mississippi plantation standards, Charley Patton was a star, a genuine
celebrity.Although Patton was roughly five foot, five inches tall and
only weighed a Spartan 135 pounds, his gravelly, high-energy singing style (even on ballads and gospel tunes it sounded this
way) made him sound like a man twice his weight and half again his size. Sleepy John Estes claimed he was the loudest blues singer he ever heard and it was rumored that his voice was loud enough to
carry outdoors at a dance up to 500 yards away without amplification. His vaudeville-style vocal asides -- which on record
give the effect of two people talking to each other -- along with the sound of his whiskey- and cigarette-scarred voice would
become major elements of the vocal style of one of his students, a young Howlin' Wolf. His guitar playing was no less impressive, fueled with a propulsive beat and a keen rhythmic sense that would
later plant seeds in the boogie style of John Lee Hooker. Patton is generally regarded as one of the original architects of putting blues into
a strong, syncopated rhythm, and his strident tone was achieved by tuning his guitar up a step and a half above standard pitch
instead of using a capo. His compositional skills on the instrument are illustrated by his penchant for finding and utilizing
several different themes as background accompaniment in a single song. His slide work -- either played in his lap like a Hawaiian
guitar and fretted with a pocket knife, or in the more conventional manner with a brass pipe for a bottleneck -- was no less
inspiring, finishing vocal phrases for him and influencing contemporaries like Son House and up-and-coming youngsters like Robert Johnson. He
also popped his bass strings (a technique he developed some 40 years before funk bass players started doing the same thing),
beat his guitar like a drum, and stomped his feet to reinforce certain beats or to create counter rhythms, all of which can
be heard on various recordings. Rhythm and excitement were the bywords of his style.
The second, and equally important, part of Patton's
legacy handed down to succeeding blues generations was his propensity for entertaining. One of the reasons for Charley Patton's enormous popularity in the South stems from his being a consummate
barrelhouse entertainer. Most of the now-common guitar gymnastics modern audiences have come to associate with the likes of
a Jimi Hendrix, in fact, originated with Patton. His ability to "entertain the peoples" and rock the house with a hell-raising ferociousness left an indelible
impression on audiences and fellow bluesmen alike. His music embraced everything from blues, ballads, ragtime, to gospel.
And so keen were Patton's abilities in setting mood and ambience, that
he could bring a barrelhouse frolic to a complete stop by launching into an impromptu performance of nothing but religious-themed
selections and still manage to hold his audience spellbound. Because he possessed the heart of a bluesman with the mindset
of a vaudeville performer, hearing Patton for the first time can be
a bit overwhelming; it's a lot to take in as the music, and performances can careen from emotionally intense to buffoonishly
comic, sometimes within a single selection. It is all strongly rooted in '20s black dance music and even on the religious
tunes in his repertoire, Patton fuels it all with a strong rhythmic
He first recorded in 1929 for the Paramount label and, within a year's time, he was not only the
largest-selling blues artist but -- in a whirlwind of recording activity -- also the music's most prolific. Patton was also responsible for hooking up fellow players Willie Brown
and Son House with their first chances to record. It is probably best
to issue a blanket audio disclaimer of some kind when listening to Patton's
total recorded legacy, some 60-odd tracks total, his final session done only a couple of months before his death in 1934.
No one will never know what Patton's Paramount masters really sounded
like. When the company went out of business, the metal masters were sold off as scrap, some of it used to line chicken coops.
All that's left are the original 78s -- rumored to have been made out of inferior pressing material commonly used to make
bowling balls -- and all of them are scratched and heavily played, making all attempts at sound retrieval by current noise-reduction
processing a tall order indeed. That said, it is still music well worth seeking out and not just for its place in history.
Patton's music gives us the first flowering of the Delta blues form,
before it became homogenized with turnarounds and 12-bar restrictions, and few humans went at it so aggressively.
Charley Patton died on April 28, 1934, at 350 Heathman Street in Indianola, Mississippi, he was 43 years of age.